Two of the most commonly used Li-ion batteries are Nickel-Cobalt-Aluminium and Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt, with the systems consisting of a cobalt oxide positive electrode (cathode). Cobalt is typically recovered as a by-product from mining operations, typically in copper and nickel.
The majority of the world’s cobalt production originates from the Democratic Republic of Congo. This creates concerns for automobile manufacturers due to political risk and concerns with labour practices.
One of the most common Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt batteries has a ratio of 8:1:1. This ratio is similar to the production output of nickel to cobalt at the TECH Project, which would position QPM nicely as a supplier of both nickel sulfate and cobalt sulfate.